The Effects of
AFC-705 on NOx
The formation of NOx takes when combustion temperatures reach above 2500 deg. F and pressures are the highest. This especially occurs when the engine is under high load or wide open throttle. NOx formation is influenced by available excess oxygen, time, and deposit buildup.
AFC-705 significantly lowers the amount of NOx production in internal combustion engines and open flame boilers.
This reduction correlates with combustion deposit removal. Carbon deposit build up in the combustion chamber causes higher compression. This directly affects the factors responsible for the formation of NOx and supports a direct connection between NOx emissions and deposits. This connection is supported by the fact that clean engines using AFC-705 treated fuel produce very low amounts of NOx. The process by which AFC-705 inhibits the formation of NOx is a direct result of the process by which it removes existing and prevents the formation of new deposits, namely through the promotion of CO2 production.
AFC-705 affects the three main factors enhancing the formation of NOx. Fuel has a finite amount of energy, which is released through the production of CO2. AFC-705 promotes the formation of CO2 during the combustion phase. If more CO2 or energy is produced during the combustion phase then less is available to be released during the exhaust phase. The difference in the amount of energy released during the two phases correlates to a temperature differential. This temperature differential, its magnitude and cause are important for three reasons.
Lower exhaust temperature. If the temperature of the combustion phase rises due to increased CO2 production then the temperature of the exhaust phase will go down. This denies the nitrogen molecules the high temperatures needed to form NOx compounds. Lower temperatures slow down the production of NOx by requiring more time for the reactions to take place. The greater the amount energy released during the combustion phase and the associated lower exhaust gas temperature the lower the rate of NOx production will be.
Shorter heat transfer time. The greater the magnitude of the temperature difference, the shorter the heat transfer time becomes. Increase in heat transfer to the surrounding engine components during combustion will decrease exhaust temperature and time for the conversion of nitrogen to NOx compounds. The shorter the heat transfer time the lower the NOX emissions.
Oxygen depletion. Increasing the production of CO2 uses up more of the available oxygen. AFC-705 promotes the production of CO2 during the combustion phase, lowering oxygen availability for NOx reactions during the exhaust phase. Less available oxygen results in lower NOX emissions.
The combination of lower exhaust temperatures, shorter heat transfer time, less available oxygen, and the complete removal of carbon deposits cause a very significant reduction of NOx emissions.